The release of women into the labor market and employment in different industries were tracked by changes in the sphere of family, visible and through low birth rate as an universal form. Very low fertility rates on the one side and changes in economical activity o women on the other side, have tbe dicussed in this work as a part of a complex deterministic base of low and very low fertility. The numerous factors that are associated with changes in reproductive behaviour of population, although economic reasons are often put in the foreground and cited as decisive in changing the model of birth. In Republic of Srpska fertility is 30% lower compared to European states that have the highest birth rates. Empirical research at the beginning of the 21st century show high evaluation of family and business, as well as the representation of the conflict attitudes on this route. The characteristics of economic acitivity of women represent a relevant framework reproductive behaviour and experience of countries that confirm positive relationship between employment o women and fertility height are examples to be followed in order to encourage birth.